Drawing on crash data analysis and community feedback, DOT and the NYPD identified priority Vision Zero intersections and corridors across the City. DOT and its agency partners then developed a Safety Action Plan for each borough. Each year DOT strives to implement at least 50 safety projects at priority locations.
The Great Streets program redesigns major corridors to prevent crashes, enhance mobility, increase accessibility, and bolster neighborhood vitality. The following projects are underway: Atlantic Ave. and Fourth Ave. in Brooklyn; the Grand Concourse in the Bronx; and Queens Blvd. in Queens. In addition, DOT is implementing Vision Zero capital redesigns on other major streets, including Delancey St. in Manhattan and Tillary St. in Brooklyn.
The agency will continue to design and implement pedestrian safety improvements, such as curb extensions, median refuges, and signal timing changes near schools and in neighborhoods with large numbers of aging New Yorkers. This effort is coupled with education and encouragement targeted at schools and senior centers.
The agency will continue its Vision Zero safety education programs for children, parents, and senior citizens, as well as its free bike helmet and car seat distribution programs. DOT is also working with the Department of Education on a Vision Zero curriculum for schools and is partnering with other City agencies to bring safety programs to community centers and afterschool programs.
Your Choices Matter is DOT’s street safety awareness campaign that emphasizes the serious consequences of dangerous driving choices. In 2017, we will launch a variation of the campaign that addresses the most common causes of serious crashes. In the longer term, DOT will produce new content in order to remain visible in the City's rapidly-changing media climate.
Cycleyes is DOT's safe cycling awareness campaign that reminds cyclists to be on the lookout for visually impaired pedestrians.
DOT will continue to refine its use of automated speed cameras to enforce the City’s 25 mile per hour speed limit within the 140 school speed zones authorized by state law.
Left turns are a key factor in nearly 30 percent of pedestrian crashes involving a fatality or serious injury. DOT is evaluating an array of design treatments at 100 locations to determine if they encourage motorists to better yield to pedestrians and to slow vehicle turns. If successful, these designs will be expanded to additional intersections across the City.
DOT, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and NYPD are developing recommendations based on a review of crashes in which a bicyclist was fatally or severely injured.
DOT will seek to pass state legislation to expand the City’s authority to use speed cameras at high-crash locations and during the most dangerous times near schools.
Unbelted back seat passengers involved in severe crashes are four times more likely to be killed as belted back seat passengers. DOT will advocate for a requirement that adult passengers riding in the back seat of private cars use seat belts.
A motorist can only be charged with driving while impaired by a drug if that drug is listed in New York State’s Public Health Law Some drugs, like synthetic marijuana, have not been added to that list, limiting prosecutions. DOT will advocate to make it illegal in New York State to drive after intentionally consuming any substance that causes impairment.
Data on serious injuries from crashes is produced through a cumbersome process involving DOT, NYPD, and the State so that injury data is often not available until 12 months after a crash occurs. NYPD is transitioning to electronic crash reporting, which will enable DOT to analyze data earlier and more quickly respond to trends.
DOT will expand the use of cameras and sensors, video analysis software, and vehicle monitoring data to expand our understanding of why crashes occur and where they are likely to occur in the future. For example, DOT may be able to highlight locations where vehicles have frequent hard braking events or use video analytics to determine where drivers are less likely to yield to pedestrians.
As laid out in Chapter 2: Safety, DOT will continue to implement at least 50 Vision Zero safety projects a year and invest in our Great Streets program. As laid out in Chapter 6: Public Realm, the agency will continue to implement streetscape improvements including benches, wayfinding signs, and leaning bars.
DOT will create or enhance at least 50 miles of bike routes a year and expand the network of protected bike lanes by at least 10 miles, double our previous target. The agency will focus on expanding the bike network in neighborhoods with limited bike infrastructure, including Jamaica, Soundview, and East Flatbush. As part of our Great Streets projects, DOT will integrate protected bike lanes into sections of the Grand Concourse in the Bronx and Queens Boulevard in Queens. As resources permit, DOT will accelerate the rate of bike lane expansion, especially of protected lanes.
DOT will continue to develop bike access plans to its bridges and will implement four bridge access projects in the next two years. The agency will continue implementation of its Harlem River Bridges Access Plan and develop a plan for a protected bicycle lane on Delancey Street to better connect cyclists to the Williamsburg Bridge, the busiest East River bike crossing.
DOT will continue to install at least 75 accessible pedestrian signals each year. The agency will expand its in-house pedestrian ramp program, and invest about $245 million over the next four years for contractor pedestrian ramp upgrades and new installations. DOT will update its Street Design Manual and capital project standards to reflect the principle of universal access.
With the MTA, DOT will expand the SBS network to 20 routes citywide, with a focus on neighborhoods underserved by the subway and corridors with high bus ridership. The agency will continue to advance the quality of SBS and local bus service through improved bus lane and design treatments, bus countdown clocks, fare collection methods, and transit signal priority.
Working with NYC Economic Development Corporation (EDC), other City agencies, and the community, DOT will plan and implement the BQX, a streetcar linking Brooklyn to Queens along the waterfront.
With USDOT, DOT will continue to test a range of CV safety applications in up to 10,000 vehicles. CV technology enables vehicles to communicate with each other, pedestrians and cyclists with mobile devices, and the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) network.
DOT, with its private-sector partner Motivate, will continue to expand Citi Bike over the next 18 months. By the end of 2017, Citi Bike will have 12,000 bikes at 750 stations. With Motivate, DOT will encourage participation in the discount membership program for NYC Housing Authority (NYCHA) residents. In partnership with Motivate, DOT will explore the feasibility of a Phase 3 expansion of the program that would reach all five boroughs.
Demand for the shared cyclist and pedestrian path on the Brooklyn Bridge often exceeds capacity. DOT will assess the feasibility of expanding and reconfiguring this popular path to better serve both groups.
In the near term, DOT will advance on-street bike lane projects to fill gaps in the East River and Harlem River greenways. In the medium term, DOT will work with the Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) and EDC to develop a funding strategy for the full build out of the greenway.
Building on best practices from other cities, DOT will plan and develop secure, affordable, and attractive bike parking at major transit hubs and activity centers across the five boroughs, including ferry terminals, key subway and commuter rail stations, and local commercial districts.
Expanding on the success of the City’s Bikes in Buildings law, DOT will work to pass City Council legislation to further broaden bike access in commercial buildings, extend bike access provisions to residential buildings, and allow folding bikes in all passenger elevators.
To free up space for operable bikes, DOT has worked with the New York City Department of Sanitation (DSNY) to finalize revised DSNY rules to streamline removal of derelict bikes from DOT bike racks. DOT will being inspecting all racks twice a year and work with DSNY and community and merchant groups to proactively remove derelict bikes.
DOT will work with its agency partners to advocate a sensible legal framework to regulate growing e-bike use and improve safety.
DOT will adopt new measures of citywide cycling, which will be used to track the growth of bicycling over time. These indicators will capture the number of New Yorkers who bike regularly and the average volume of daily biking trips across the five boroughs. DOT will continue to conduct bike counts at strategic locations.
Working with our partners at the MTA, DOT will conduct a study of unmet transit needs in communities across the five boroughs and develop a set of recommendations to meet these needs. Possible recommendations include SBS, rail system, and streetcar expansion.
In collaboration with the MTA, DOT will develop a plan to mitigate the impact of the closure of the L train tunnels under the East River, which carry the same number of passengers into and out of Manhattan each day as the Long Island Rail Road. DOT will consider transformative traffic management and bus priority treatments on 14th Street and the East River Bridges, as well as expanded bike routes and bike parking facilities on both sides of the river.
DOT will pilot the installation of sensor and camera technology that can be used for multiple purposes, including better understanding how streets are used and better managing traffic flow. DOT will also explore enforcement strategies with the NYPD and the Department of Finance, including targeted deployment of traffic enforcement agents, use of cameras and sensors for parking and loading regulation enforcement, and the replacement of the City’s paper parking placards with an electronic system.
Building off goals in this plan, DOT will develop an ITS Strategic Plan that describes our ITS vision and goals within the following six areas: enhancing operational capabilities, advancing operational planning, emerging technology readiness, lifecycle management, professional capacity building, and outreach and communication.
DOT will develop a shared-use mobility plan to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by new transportation services and models.
DOT, with the TLC, will explore the potential of ridesharing services to meet travel needs in areas underserved by the subway and to reduce traffic volumes.
DOT will explore the potential for carshare to reduce car ownership and improve parking availability, and develop a set of pilot projects to expand carsharing outside of Manhattan. This will include consideration of opportunities for electric vehicles and charging stations.
DOT, with the TLC, will examine the potential safety, congestion, social, environmental, and economic impacts of autonomous vehicles and develop a set of policies for federal and state advocacy and to guide future pilot projects.
DOT, with input from the TLC, will conduct a comprehensive study of the commuter van industry to better understand the role of commuter vans in the City’s transportation system and to explore potential policy changes to improve safety and travel choices.
DOT will conduct a pilot test of electronic beacons, which can assist visually impaired pedestrians in navigating the City, at indoor and outdoor transportation facilities. DOT will also test tactile guide-ways for visually impaired pedestrians on sidewalks and at outdoor public spaces.
DOT will complete a comprehensive analysis of the availability, regulation, and use of metered parking spaces and develop a pricing strategy to increase curb availability for deliveries and customer parking, focusing especially on congested commercial districts.
DOT will work to pass City Council legislation to tighten the approval requirements for sight-seeing buses to better manage their stops.
As laid out in the Mayor’s Ten Year Capital Plan for DOT, the agency will plan for and invest in a range of projects, from bridge rehabilitation to full street reconstruction. As we implement this ambitious program, we shall continue to identify new resources and pursue cost-cutting solutions to address funding needs.
DOT will continue to update legacy computer systems to better support asset management. The agency will roll out its Sign Information Management System (SIMS) for street signs, complete development of its new bridge asset management system, and develop an asset management system for roadways,sidewalks, and pedestrian ramps.
DOT will continue to complete a broad range of resiliency projects first laid out in the Special Initiative for Rebuilding and Resiliency (SIRR). These projects include retrofits to bridges, streets, traffic signals, yards and facilities. Progress on these efforts is laid out in detail in the OneNYC progress report.
DOT will continue to participate in multi-agency planning and design efforts for coastal protection systems along the East River and the Battery in Manhattan, Staten Island's South Shore, Red Hook in Brooklyn and others areas identified in OneNYC.
DOT will seek to continue internal and City agency-wide discussions on streamlining the design and review of DOT capital projects. Such coordination among DOT planning teams and our City partners, including the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), DPR, and DDC, will align agency goals before projects are initiated, leading to efficient delivery of projects and lower agency operational costs.
DOT is committed to increasing contracting opportunities for M/WBE firms and to providing support to help them become successful agency contractors. DOT’s designated M/WBE Officer will continue to oversee these efforts.
DOT will create an asset management task force, with representatives across the agency, to institutionalize best practices. Where practical, DOT will seek to create asset management systems that group asset classes, such as street pavement and pedestrian ramps.
DOT will create tools and a process to help agency leadership cost-effectively allocate limited capital resources across a diverse range of asset classes.
When making these decisions, the agency will seek to take into account not only cost savings over the long term, but also seek to mitigate or avoid adverse social and environmental costs, such as impacts on low-income communities, air quality, and greenhouse gas emissions.
In conjunction with the City’s Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, DOT will assess the vulnerability of its infrastructure to climate shocks, especially in areas that were not affected by Super Storm Sandy, and evaluate the costs and benefits of potential mitigation actions. This plan will inform DOT’s capital plan going forward.
DOT will update its Street Design Manual to include a greater focus on resilient and sustainable street design features, including permeable pavement, green infrastructure and natural features, and other climate-adaptation elements.
In collaboration with the MTA, PANYNJ, NYPD, Emergency Management, and others, create detailed contingency plans to address transportation needs in the aftermath of disruptive climate events
Working with the State Legislature, DOT will seek passage of state legislation authorizing DOT to use design-build procurements, in which design and construction services are procured under a single contract.
By using one system, DOT will be able to better manage our capital projects, resulting in shorter project timelines. Over the medium term, DOT will seek to develop a centralized project management system with DDC and DEP.
DOT will create standard project and contract documents for typical capital projects, such as sidewalk extensions and bus bulbs. These boilerplate forms will streamline internal and intra-agency approvals for routine capital projects, thereby freeing agency staff to process complex major projects.
DOT will continue to encourage the use of trucks with cleaner engine emission standards through programs such as the Hunts Point Clean Trucks Program (see Chapter 7: Sustainability for more information on this program).
DOT will continue to update the City’s truck route network to reflect current land uses and truck access needs and make the freight industry aware of these updates.
DOT will continue to expand the use of Weigh-in-Motion scales (see the box above). Overweight trucks damage our roadways and put companies that follow the rules at an economic disadvantage.
DOT will encourage off-hour deliveries, with a focus on large buildings in areas with high pedestrian and bicycle activity. Shifting deliveries to overnight hours decreases congestion and truck emissions. DOT will also work with the trucking industry to pilot low-noise truck technologies, as well as deploy a network of noise monitors and cameras to monitor off-hour delivery activity.
DOT will explore opportunities for micro freight distribution centers in highly congested commercial areas. These centers might be sited in curb space now dedicated to commercial loading, encouraging off-hour delivery and more efficient collection of recycled materials and waste.
DOT will develop truck route profiles for each borough to better understand truck route use and compliance. This analysis will enable the agency to better understand the movement of goods, the needs of shippers and receivers, and community concerns. The agency will then recommend a series of actions to reduce the environmental and social impacts of trucking, while enabling our economy to grow.
DOT will significantly increase the staff of the Office of Freight Mobility in support of the citywide freight plan and the agency’s efforts to increase the use of sensor and camera technology to monitor compliance with truck regulations and traffic laws.
DOT will explore issuing notices of observation to off-route trucks and overweight trucks that repeatedly violate rules, with opportunities for adjudication. DOT will explore linking these to denial of permits and City contracts, or other sanctions.
DOT works with local partners to create neighborhood plazas throughout the City, transforming underused streets into vibrant public spaces. The Plaza Program includes one-day plaza projects, interim plazas created with temporary materials, and permanent plazas. Our plaza partners are responsible for on-going maintenance. DOT provides financial and technical support through the Plaza Equity program when neighborhoods need assistance.
DOT has a range of programs to make our streets more attractive, easier to navigate, and more comfortable for pedestrians. These programs include:
Coordinated Street Furniture: provision and maintenance of bus shelters, newsstands, and automatic public toilets by DOT’s street furniture franchisee;
CityBench: the installation of benches at bus stops and plazas and on sidewalks to increase public seating on City streets;
WalkNYC: the installation of map-based way-finding information in neighborhoods and at SBS stations across the City; and,
Street Seats: a citywide program by which local partners apply to transform underused streets space, such as parking spaces, into seasonal public spaces.
DOT Art partners with community-based organizations and artists to present temporary public art in neighborhoods across the City. Artists help transform the City's streets from ordinary to extraordinary through colorful murals, dynamic light projections and thought-provoking sculptures.
Each year, the City opens up streets across the five boroughs to pedestrians and cyclists. These programs include:
Summer Streets: an annual celebration during which nearly seven miles of Manhattan streets from the Brooklyn Bridge to Central Park are opened on three consecutive summer Saturdays for people to play, run, walk, and bike;
Weekend Walks: a series of multi-block neighborhood events across the five boroughs during which, at the request of the community, commercial streets are temporarily closed to vehicles and opened to walking and other activities; and,
Car-Free NYC: an annual Earth Day celebration that opens City streets for recreation, allowing residents and visitors to enjoy New York City’s most valuable public space—our streets.
DOT will conduct an inventory of el-spaces, develop an El-Space toolkit of design treatments, and initiate five El-Space pilot projects, some in partnership with the Design Trust for Public Space. The project will include a consideration of opportunities for secure bike parking.
To accommodate pedestrian flow on busy sidewalks and to keep sidewalks clean, DOT is working with the City Council to pass legislation to streamline the news rack registration process, encourage the use of modular racks, and hold owners more accountable for their dirty or disorderly racks.
Shared streets give priority to pedestrians with accommodation for vehicles needing local access. Having pedestrians, cyclists, cars, and trucks all traveling slowly through a common street space discourages traffic and has been shown to improve traffic safety. In conjunction with this year’s Summer Streets, DOT held a Shared Streets event covering 60 blocks of historic Lower Manhattan. Based on this successful test, DOT will explore expanding Shared Streets and holding additional pilot events in 2017..
In collaboration with a supportive community, DOT will create a seasonal pedestrian- and cyclist-only street in the summer of 2017. Car and truck access will be accommodated through special regulations, potentially during off-hours. The pilot project will last several months and will be evaluated by DOT.
To achieve a shift from auto travel to low-carbon modes, the City must provide safe, convenient, and connected bike and pedestrian networks as well as work with the MTA to improve bus service and pedestrian and bicycle access to transit. (See Chapter 3: Mobility for more information about DOT’s initiatives in this arena).
Go Smart NYC is DOT’s neighborhood-based travel choice resource program. Go Smart provides New Yorkers with information on their travel options and gives them incentives to use low-carbon modes like walking, biking, and transit. After launching in Queens Community District 5 in 2015, DOT plans to expand the program to select Brooklyn neighborhoods in 2016 and 2017.
DOT will continue to partner with DEP in the siting of right-of-way bioswales, stormwater greenstreets, and other green infrastructure designs in City streets, sidewalks, plazas, and greenways. GI diverts storm water runoff from the sewer system and helps prevent the discharge of sewage into our rivers and streams. We will also begin working with DEP on strategies to clean storm water runoff.
Well-lit streets are vital to pedestrian and vehicle safety. DOT is replacing its high-pressure sodium street lights with modern LEDs that use 80 percent less energy. The agency has converted over 100,000 of its streetlights thus far and plans to convert our remaining 150,000 lights by 2018. All of the signals in DOT’s 12,000 signalized intersections have already been converted to LED.
The agency is a national leader in the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP)—our asphalt now contains 40 percent RAP. By using RAP, the City saves on new material and reduces the environmental costs associated with transport and disposal of milled asphalt. DOT has also begun testing warm mix asphalt, which requires less energy to make than traditional asphalt.
In late 2016, DOT will begin converting all light fixtures in its ferry terminals to LEDs. In addition, the agency is planning to install shore power at its maintenance facility, so our ferries do not need to run their engines while being serviced. Finally, the agency is procuring three new ferry boats with cleaner EPA Tier 4 engines. These vessels will go into service in 2020 and 2021.
The City and DOT are working to secure federal funding to replace another 100 trucks as part of the Hunts Point Clean Truck initiative (see the box above). DOT is also seeking to expand the program to other priority communities with high levels of truck activity.
In accordance with legislation passed by the City Council as part of Local Law 80 of 2013, DOT will test the effectiveness of permeable asphalt pavement and permeable concrete sidewalks. These surfaces allow the ground below the pavement or sidewalk to absorb a portion of storm water, reducing runoff into the sewer system. DOT will monitor the impact of these surfaces, determine maintenance needs, and consider a broader application of these materials.
DOT will develop green infrastructure elements within agency projects that will reduce the quantity of storm water runoff and help the City meet state and federal requirements for Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) areas, which have separate storm sewer and sanitary sewers.
As part of its NYC Clean Fleet initiative, the City is creating the largest municipal electrical vehicle fleet in the United States. DOT current operates 639 sedans, of which 53 are plug-in hybrids or fully electric vehicles. The agency plans to replace 50 percent of the sedans retired each year with plug-in hybrids or fully electric vehicles. The City is also exploring strategies to green the agency’s light and heavy-duty truck fleets.
As part of its comprehensive facilities assessment (see Chapter 8: Organizational Excellence), DOT will conduct an energy audit, which will identify energy conservation measures for its facilities. This effort is part of the City’s 80 x 50 initiative. Conservation measures may include LED lighting, HVAC system upgrades, and solar panels, and will be implemented as energy efficiencies are identified.
DOT has conducted an employee safety survey to get input from our employees about workplace safety issues and implemented safety slogans to remind staff of the importance of workplace safety.
DOT will continue to track employee injuries and analyze the data for trends. The agency will use the results to target the types of injuries that occur most often and create new safety training materials. In addition, DOT has hired a consultant to provide feedback on work zone design.
DOT will continue to provide training programs to help employees close gaps in their knowledge, whether it is software training or supervisor competencies. DOT also has a staff development library and access to online courses for employees who wish to do self-guided development.
DOT will continue its commitment to public service and adherence by its employees to the agency’s Code of Conduct, Executive Orders regarding integrity, and the City’s Conflict of Interest Laws. Through training and awareness programs, we will continue to encourage employees to conduct themselves in an honest and ethical manner and to be respectful of the diverse perspectives and backgrounds that each DOT employee brings to the workplace.
DOT will publish a quarterly safety newsletter that shares best practices in safety among all units in DOT. We will also develop training profiles for specific roles to ensure that field staff members receive appropriate safety training throughout their careers.
DOT will conduct a comprehensive assessment of the conditions of its facilities. The assessment will be used to guide the agency’s preventive maintenance efforts and facility capital investments. The assessment will also include an energy audit, which will evaluate potential energy efficiency improvements.
DOT will develop and pilot a rotational management development program in which selected DOT employees can do work exchanges with other DOT units and divisions, gaining experience in planning, outreach, design, data analysis, and other fields.
DOT will expand its outreach efforts regarding agency job openings and the civil service exam process to groups under-represented at the agency. A closer relationship between Human Resources and the agency’s EEO/Diversity Office will allow us to identify appropriate publications and affinity groups to target.
DOT's Recruitment Coordinator will work closely with the operating divisions to identify current employees who are recent graduates to expand the pool of individuals who can represent the agency at career fairs and other on-campus recruitment opportunities.
DOT will seek to learn from global best practices in peer cities worldwide as it advances its sustainable transportation agenda.
DOT is participating in a citywide effort to review and reform the current procurement processes. DOT will participate in ongoing pilots to compress the procurement timeline and add more predictability to the process, so that, among other improvements, the vendor pool is expanded and smaller vendors are better able to compete.
DOT will continue to use social media to promote agency projects and initiatives and monitor public feedback. The agency will also continue to develop video content explaining our projects and priorities, as well as conduct market research to measure the effectiveness of our public awareness efforts.
DOT will continue to consult with local communities on all of its projects. For major initiatives, such as Select Bus Service routes and Great Streets projects, DOT will continue to use tools like interactive workshops and open houses to provide a forum for community input.
DOT will continue to deploy its Street Ambassadors to expand the reach of its public engagement efforts, particularly to groups traditionally under-represented at public meetings, including bus riders, non-English speakers, and low-income New Yorkers.
DOT will continue to use online project portals to solicit input on street improvement projects, share project updates, and post designs. DOT will expand the use of portals to include a broader range of projects.
To further improve customer service, DOT is upgrading the agency’s centralized correspondence tracking system to better respond to the 30,000 letters, emails, and other communications the agency receives each year from elected officials, community boards and the general public.
DOT has updated its permit application system to make it easier for applicants. We have also increased service frequency on the Staten Island Ferry.
The agency is in the process of conducting a comprehensive redesign of its website to make it more user friendly and to meet universal accessibility standards. The new site will include a web content management system that will allow for more timely updates.
DOT will seek to engage the public outside of the project-specific review process to raise awareness of what we do and build relationships. These venues could include community events and non-transportation focused forums.
DOT will explore opportunities to use surveys and other tools to measure changes in satisfaction of travelers over time and to better understand the needs and attitudes of the public towards potential changes or real world experience with the transportation system.
Leveraging the agency’s deep institutional knowledge, DOT will develop an outreach resource guide documenting best practices from across the agency. The agency will also create a searchable in-house digital warehouse of public outreach materials, including presentations, talking points, and letters.
Using new data sources and analytics tools, the agency will develop ways to better quantify the economic, health, and safety benefits of our projects and to communicate these benefits to the public.
DOT is developing a public facing online map of agency projects and pending work already in our queue to let the public more easily review upcoming projects that might affect their lives. These maps will also link to new online forms for the public to submit inquiries directly to the agency.
Beginning this summer, parking permit holders with permanent disabilities will be issued two-year rather than one-year permits. In addition, the hours for DOT’s parking permit customer service center have been extended, and the agency is working to simplify its application process.
As part of efforts to improve the agency’s procurement process, DOT has established a working group composed of the agency’s fiscal affairs, engineering audit, legal, IT, and operational units. To speed up contract payments by at least 20 percent, DOT will require concurrent reviews by different units, allow invoice adjustments to follow initial payments to contractors, transition more of the payment process to computer-based systems, and develop a new contract payment management system.
Change orders can sometimes take a year to be approved, far longer than in the private sector. Moving forward, DOT will hold itself and its contractors accountable for meeting aggressive timelines in the change order process. The agency will improve change order tracking, better integrate our change order process with the new citywide procurement system, and continue efforts to expedite approvals from oversight agencies.